Chapter 1: The History of Settlement Services in Canada
By the end of this section, you will be able to
- Categorize settlement service models throughout the history of immigration
- Research and analyze the range of settlement service organizations in Alberta
- Debate the value of these varying influences through discussions and in writing
Settlement services have gradually emerged and evolved from the informal support of familiar ethnic community and family groups to organized government-funded non-profit services. The informal groups passed on what they learned from their immigrant experience. Organized government services provided a broader, professionally organized system of resources and support.
Watch the following video about the challenges of new immigrants in Canada and how they received settlement guidance and support from immigrant service organizations.
After watching, answer the questions below. You can add these reflective responses to your chapter journal.
- What are the challenges that Siraj outlines in this video?
- What advice does he give as possible solutions to these challenges?
In Canada. (2019, September 19). Challenges for new immigrants in Canada [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kvPVkVyQNbo
Overview of Settlement Service Providers in Canada
The following is a glossary of terms that are often used in the settlement sector:
|CA||Contribution agreement||I&O||Information and orientation services|
|CC||Community connections||RAP||Resettlement Assistance Program|
|CEC||Canadian Experience Class||PSR||Privately sponsored refugee|
|CIC||Citizenship and Immigration Canada||PNP||Provincial Nominee Program|
|CLB||Canadian Language Benchmark||PR||Permanent resident|
|CNC||Care for Newcomer Children||PA||Principal applicant|
|ER||Employment-related services||NARS||Needs assessments and referrals|
|ESL||English as a second language||LT||Language training|
|FSL||French as a second language||LIP||Local immigration pPartnership|
|FSW||Federal skilled worker||LA||Language assessment|
|FTE||Full-time equivalent||IRPA||Immigration and Refugee Protection Act|
|FY||Fiscal year||IRCC||Immigration, Refugees and Citizenship Canada|
|GAR||Government-assisted refugee||iCARE||Immigration Contribution Agreement Reporting Environment|
|SCOS||Settlement Client Outcomes Survey||iCAMS||Immigration Contribution Accountability Measurement System|
|SPO||Service provider organization||SD||Spouses and dependants|
|SWIS||Settlement workers in school|
The information from the IRCC (Immigration, Refugee and Citizenship Canada) report, Evaluation of the Settlement Program (2017), reviews how settlement services have evolved since the early 1900s. The government has systemized the settlement sector by providing funding for the operation and delivery of settlement and integration services. Providers are closely monitored to ensure that services meet their stated outcomes and adhere to terms of the funding contract.
The report makes the following recommendations for improvement in six (6) categories of settlement services:
Immigrant settlement service organizations offer three types of services (Standing Committee on Citizenship and Immigration, 2010):
- Direct Service Delivery: Through contribution agreements (CAs), IRCC funds service provider organizations (SPOs) such as immigrant-serving agencies, social service organizations, and educational institutions to provide their unique services to newcomers.
- Support Services: In order to help address barriers that newcomers face in accessing settlement programming, IRCC funds six types of support services on a limited basis: Care for Newcomer Children, Translation, Transportation, Interpretation, Disability Support, and Crisis Counselling. It is expected that no more than 20% of the funding be used for direct services.
- Indirect Services: Indirect services include projects that support the development of partnerships, capacity building, and the sharing of best practices among SPOs. Examples of indirect services include community partnerships and networks for local planning and settlement coordination. A local immigration partnership (LIP) is a partnership network that aims to coordinate services for newcomers at the local level by bringing together various stakeholders outside of traditional settlement service providers, including employers, school boards, health centres and networks, boards of trade, levels of government, professional associations, ethno-cultural organizations, faith-based organizations, and the community and social services sectors.
The IRCC webpage “For new immigrants” provides a list of settlement service providers.
Choose five (5) different providers and identify the category of service in which they belong.
- List the services they may be lacking.
- Choose two (2) of the IRCC recommendations. Speculate on the reasons for these recommendations. Which two (2) recommendations do you think contribute the most to the positive integration of immigrants?
Post your answer to the following question on the discussion forum:
- Which settlement service do you think has the biggest impact on a new immigrant’s settlement process?
Respond to your classmates and generate a thought-provoking discussion. Remember to be respectful of others’ opinions. You are learning from each other’s diversity of ideas and perspectives.
Broughton, S., & Shield, J. (2020). Resilience and the immigrant settlement sector: A consideration of the place of accountability and performance management research report. York University. https://bmrc-irmu.info.yorku.ca/files/2020/04/April-2020-Shields-Full-Report-FINAL.pdf?x82641https://bmrc-irmu.info.yorku.ca/files/2020/04/April-2020-Shields-Full-Report-FINAL.pdf?x82641
George, U. (2002, July 1). A needs-based model for settlement service delivery for newcomers to Canada. International Social Work, 45(4), 465–480. https://doi.org/10.1177/00208728020450040501
Immigration, Refugees and Citizenship Canada. (2017). Evaluation of the settlement program. https://www.canada.ca/content/dam/ircc/documents/pdf/english/evaluation/e2-2016-settlement-en.pdf
Ontario Council of Agencies Serving Immigrants. (2018). Foundations of settlement work in Ontario. https://settlementatwork.org/sites/settlementatwork.org/files/Foundations%20%20of%20Settlement%20Work%20in%20Ontario.pdf
Standing Committee on Citizenship and Immigration. (2019). Improving settlement services across Canada report. 42nd Parliament, 1st session. https://www.ourcommons.ca/DocumentViewer/en/42-1/CIMM/report-26/