Chapter 1: The History of Settlement Services in Canada

Chapter References and Attributions


Babych, S. (2020, September 23). Innovative system introduced in Calgary to improve newcomers’ access to settlement services. Calgary Herald.

Bicha, K. D. (1965, December 10). The Plains Farmer and the Prairie Province Frontier, 1897–1914. Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society, 109(6), 398–440.

Biography. (2020). John Cabot.

Brydon, A. (1999). Icelanders. In P. R. Magocsi (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Canada’s peoples (pp. 685–700). Multicultural History Society of Ontario and University of Toronto Press.

Calgary Catholic Immigration Services (CCIS). (2021). Homepage.

Cameron, J. D. (2005). Canada’s struggle with illegal entry on its west coast: The case of Fred Yoshy and Japanese migrants before the Second World War. BC Studies, 146, 37–62.

Campbell Cohen Law Firm. (2021, June 25). Canada immigration levels plan 2021–2023. CanadaVisa.

Canadian Encyclopedia. (2021). Timeline: Residential schools.

Canadian Encyclopedia. (2016). Asian heritage in Canada.

Canadian Museum of History. (n.d.). The struggle for Canada.

Columbus Centre. (n.d.). The internment camps. Italian Canadians as Enemy Aliens: Memories of World War II.

Community Development Council Durham. (2010). Towards an integrated immigrant services delivery system in Durham region: Research and considerations for moving forward.

Conway, S. (2018). From Britishness to multiculturalism: Official Canadian identity in the 1960s. Canadian Studies, 84(2), 9-30.

Coyne, A. (2021, June 4). The shame of residential schools must be worn by us all – not just historical figures. The Globe and Mail.

Edmonton Mennonite Centre for Newcomers (EMCN). (n.d.). Homepage.

El-Assal, K. (2020, June 14). Where are Canada’s immigrants coming from in 2020? CIC News.

El-Assal, K., & Thevenot, S. (2020, 30 October). Canada to target over 400,000 immigrants per year. CIC News.

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George, U. (2002). A needs-based model for settlement service delivery for newcomers to Canada. International Social Work, 45(4), 465-480.

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Griffith, A. (2017, November 1). Building a mosaic: The evolution of Canada’s approach to immigrant integration. Online Journal of the Migration Policy Institute.

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Immigrant Services Association of Nova Scotia (ISANS). (2021). Homepage.

Immigrant Services Calgary. (2021). Homepage.

Immigration, Refugees and Citizenship Canada. (2017). Evaluation of the settlement program.

Jiro, N. (1998). Phantom immigrants: Oikawa Jinsaburo, the Suian Maru, and the Miyagi-ken Japanese-Canadians of Lion Island and Don Island (D. Sulz, Trans.). David Sulz. (Original work published 1979).

Khan, Z. (2020, February 27). What services do settlement agencies provide in Canada? World Education Services.

Lee, K. L. (2017, June 29). ‘Humiliation Day’: July 1 has added meaning for some Chinese Canadians. CBC.

McKillop, A. B. (2013, December 16). Social Darwinism. The Canadian Encyclopedia.

McRae, M. (2021). The Chinese head tax and the Chinese Exclusion Act. Canadian Museum for Human Rights.

Mishra, S. (2020, May 6). 10 things to do after landing in Canada as a PR. AM22Tech.

O’Neil, A. (2020, July 20).  Population of Canada 1800–2020. Statista.

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Saint-jacques, B., Chambers, J. K., & Cooper, C. (2019, October 18). Immigrant languages in Canada. The Canadian Encyclopedia.

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Standing Committee on Citizenship and Immigration. (2010, March). Best practices in settlement services: Report of the Standing Committee on Citizenship and Immigration. House of Commons Canada.

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Sulz, D. K. A. (2003). Japanese “entrepreneur” on the Fraser River: Oikawa Jinsaburo and the illegal immigrants of the Suian Maru [Master’s thesis, University of Victoria].

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Whitaker, R. (1991). Canadian immigration policy since Confederation. Canada’s Ethnic Groups series: Booklet no. 15. Canadian Historical Association.

Widdis, R. W. (1992). Saskatchewan bound: Immigration to a new Canadian frontier. Great Plains Quarterly, 12(4), 254–268.

Wilkinson, L., Bhattacharyya, P., Riziki, A., & Abdul-Karim, A. (2019). Yazidi resettlement in Canada – Final report 2018. University of Manitoba.

Wilson, K. (2018). Pulling Together: Foundations Guide. Victoria, BC: BCcampus. Retrieved from

Zucchi, J. (2007). A history of ethnic enclaves in Canada. Canada’s Ethnic Groups series: Booklet no. 31. Canadian Historical Association.

Media Attributions

Arienne – SeeYouSoon Travel. (2018, May 10). Halifax’s Pier 21 and my family’s immigration story | Nova Scotia [Video]. YouTube.

Canadian Heritage. (2017, April 21). Remembering the journey to Canada of Vietnamese refugees – Asian heritage month. [Video]. YouTube.

Canadian Immigration Channel. (2017, May 28). Do not use settlement services. Immigration to Canada. LP Group [Video]. YouTube.

CBC. (2017, April 9). Hunting treasure | Canada: The story of us, full episode 2. [Video]. YouTube.

CBC. (2017, June 4). The Canadian experiment | Canada: The story of us, full episode 10 [Video]. YouTube.

The Fifth Estate. (2017, August 25). Japanese deportations in Canada during WWII: Throwaway citizens (1995) – The Fifth Estate [Video]. YouTube.

The Fifth Estate. (2017, March 20). After the crossing: Refugees in Canada – The Fifth Estate [Video]. YouTube.

Historica Canada. (2015, May 20). Jason’s story: Embracing the hyphen in Korean-Canadian [Video]. YouTube.

Historica Canada. (2017, June 19). Heritage minutes: “Boat people” refugees [Video]. YouTube.

In Canada. (2019, September 19). Challenges for new immigrants in Canada [Video]. YouTube.

New Canadians. (2018, October 26). Passages Canada introduces today’s immigrants to Canada [Video]. YouTube.

Sidhu, S. (2014, September 16). We are not strangers documentary about 1907 Bellingham riots [Video]. YouTube.

Storyhive. (2017, May 19). The surprising story of Canada’s enemy aliens. [Video]. YouTube.

TEDx Talks. (2018, July 16). What did two years in Canada teach me? [Video]. YouTube.

TEDx Talks. (2013, October 23). The big shift – Understanding the new Canadian: Darrell Bricker at TedxToronto [Video]. YouTube.

TEDx Talks. (2013, July 16). Why Canadian history isn’t as boring as you think it is: Chris Turner at TEDxYYC [Video]. YouTube.

University of British Columbia. (2016, June 15). An act of grace: UBC’s first Sikh immigrant family [Video]. YouTube.

The Wanders of Chi. (2020, June 27). My Canadian immigration story: Why I decided to move to Canada permanently [Video]. YouTube.


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