Chapter 1: The History of Settlement Services in Canada

Chapter References and Attributions

References

Babych, S. (2020, September 23). Innovative system introduced in Calgary to improve newcomers’ access to settlement services. Calgary Herald. https://calgaryherald.com/news/local-news/innovative-system-introduced-in-calgary-to-improve-newcomers-access-to-settlement-services

Bicha, K. D. (1965, December 10). The Plains Farmer and the Prairie Province Frontier, 1897–1914. Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society, 109(6), 398–440. http://www.jstor.org/stable/986139

Biography. (2020). John Cabot. https://www.biography.com/explorer/john-cabot

Brydon, A. (1999). Icelanders. In P. R. Magocsi (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Canada’s peoples (pp. 685–700). Multicultural History Society of Ontario and University of Toronto Press.

Calgary Catholic Immigration Services (CCIS). (2021). Homepage. https://www.ccisab.ca/

Cameron, J. D. (2005). Canada’s struggle with illegal entry on its west coast: The case of Fred Yoshy and Japanese migrants before the Second World War. BC Studies, 146, 37–62. https://doi.org/10.14288/bcs.v0i146.1757

Campbell Cohen Law Firm. (2021, June 25). Canada immigration levels plan 2021–2023. CanadaVisa. https://www.canadavisa.com/canada-immigration-levels-plans.html#gs.4hwnut

Canadian Encyclopedia. (2021). Timeline: Residential schools. https://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.ca/en/timeline/residential-schools

Canadian Encyclopedia. (2016). Asian heritage in Canada. https://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.ca/en/article/asian-heritage-in-canada-1

Canadian Museum of History. (n.d.). The struggle for Canada. https://www.historymuseum.ca/history-hall/struggle-for-canada

Columbus Centre. (n.d.). The internment camps. Italian Canadians as Enemy Aliens: Memories of World War II. http://www.italiancanadianww2.ca/theme/detail/internment_camps

Community Development Council Durham. (2010). Towards an integrated immigrant services delivery system in Durham region: Research and considerations for moving forward. https://www.cdcd.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/06/CDCD-Aug-2010.pdf

Conway, S. (2018). From Britishness to multiculturalism: Official Canadian identity in the 1960s. Canadian Studies, 84(2), 9-30. https://doi.org/10.4000/eccs.1118

Coyne, A. (2021, June 4). The shame of residential schools must be worn by us all – not just historical figures. The Globe and Mail. https://www.theglobeandmail.com/opinion/article-the-shame-of-residential-schools-must-be-worn-by-us-all-not-just/

Edmonton Mennonite Centre for Newcomers (EMCN). (n.d.). Homepage. http://www.emcn.ab.ca/

El-Assal, K. (2020, June 14). Where are Canada’s immigrants coming from in 2020? CIC News. https://www.cicnews.com/2020/06/where-are-canadas-immigrants-coming-from-in-2020-0614659.html

El-Assal, K., & Thevenot, S. (2020, 30 October). Canada to target over 400,000 immigrants per year. CIC News. https://www.cicnews.com/2020/10/canada-to-release-2021-2023-immigration-levels-plan-1016133.html#gs.4hw7u7

Geography Open Textbook Collective. (2014). Case study 1: The Indian residential school system. In British Columbia in a global context. https://opentextbc.ca/geography/chapter/4-4-case-study/

George, U. (2002). A needs-based model for settlement service delivery for newcomers to Canada. International Social Work, 45(4), 465-480. https://doi.org/10.1177/00208728020450040501

Government of Canada. (2021a). Get help before arriving in Canada: About pre-arrival services. https://www.canada.ca/en/immigration-refugees-citizenship/services/new-immigrants/new-life-canada/pre-arrival-services.html

Government of Canada. (2021b). Notice – Supplementary information for 2021–2023 Immigration Levels Plan. https://www.canada.ca/en/immigration-refugees-citizenship/news/notices/supplementary-immigration-levels-2021-2023.html

Griffith, A. (2017, November 1). Building a mosaic: The evolution of Canada’s approach to immigrant integration. Online Journal of the Migration Policy Institute. https://www.migrationpolicy.org/article/building-mosaic-evolution-canadas-approach-immigrant-integration

Griffith, A. (2015, September 22). Multiculturalism in Canada: Evidence and anecdote. Policy Options. https://policyoptions.irpp.org/2015/09/22/multiculturalism-in-canada-evidence-and-anecdote/

Hopper, T. (2012, February 11). Canada: As immigration booms, ethnic enclaves swell and segregate. National Post. https://nationalpost.com/news/canada/canada-as-immigration-booms-ethnic-enclaves-swell-and-segregate

Immigrant Services Association of Nova Scotia (ISANS). (2021). Homepage. https://www.isans.ca/

Immigrant Services Calgary. (2021). Homepage. https://www.immigrantservicescalgary.ca/

Immigration, Refugees and Citizenship Canada. (2017). Evaluation of the settlement program. https://www.canada.ca/content/dam/ircc/documents/pdf/english/evaluation/e2-2016-settlement-en.pdf

Jiro, N. (1998). Phantom immigrants: Oikawa Jinsaburo, the Suian Maru, and the Miyagi-ken Japanese-Canadians of Lion Island and Don Island (D. Sulz, Trans.). David Sulz. (Original work published 1979). https://sites.ualberta.ca/~sulz/Phantom_Immigrants_Oct09.pdf

Khan, Z. (2020, February 27). What services do settlement agencies provide in Canada? World Education Services. https://www.wes.org/advisor-blog/settlement-agencies-services-canada/

Lee, K. L. (2017, June 29). ‘Humiliation Day’: July 1 has added meaning for some Chinese Canadians. CBC. https://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/nova-scotia/humiliation-day-chinese-canadian-head-tax-exclusion-act-july-1-1.4175025

McKillop, A. B. (2013, December 16). Social Darwinism. The Canadian Encyclopedia. https://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.ca/en/article/social-darwinism

McRae, M. (2021). The Chinese head tax and the Chinese Exclusion Act. Canadian Museum for Human Rights. https://humanrights.ca/story/the-chinese-head-tax-and-the-chinese-exclusion-act

Mishra, S. (2020, May 6). 10 things to do after landing in Canada as a PR. AM22Tech. https://www.am22tech.com/ca/things-to-do-after-landing-in-canada-pr/

O’Neil, A. (2020, July 20).  Population of Canada 1800–2020. Statista. https://www.statista.com/statistics/1066836/population-canada-since-1800/

Ontario Council of Agencies Serving Immigrants (OCASI). (2018). Foundations of settlement work in Ontario. https://settlementatwork.org/sites/settlementatwork.org/files/Foundations%20%20of%20Settlement%20Work%20in%20Ontario.pdf

Roy, P. E. (2020, June 11). Internment in Canada. The Canadian Encyclopedia. https://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.ca/en/article/internment

Saint-jacques, B., Chambers, J. K., & Cooper, C. (2019, October 18). Immigrant languages in Canada. The Canadian Encyclopedia. https://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.ca/en/article/ethnic-languages

Standing Committee on Citizenship and Immigration. (2019, June). Improving settlement services across Canada: Report of the Standing Committee on Citizenship and Immigration. House of Commons Canada. https://www.ourcommons.ca/DocumentViewer/en/42-1/CIMM/report-26/

Standing Committee on Citizenship and Immigration. (2010, March). Best practices in settlement services: Report of the Standing Committee on Citizenship and Immigration. House of Commons Canada. https://www.ourcommons.ca/Content/Committee/403/CIMM/Reports/RP4388396/cimmrp02/cimmrp02-e.pdf

Statistics Canada. (2016). 150 years of immigration in Canada. https://www150.statcan.gc.ca/n1/pub/11-630-x/11-630-x2016006-eng.htm

Sulz, D. K. A. (2003). Japanese “entrepreneur” on the Fraser River: Oikawa Jinsaburo and the illegal immigrants of the Suian Maru [Master’s thesis, University of Victoria]. https://sites.ualberta.ca/~sulz/SulzThesis_Japanese_Entrepreneur_on_the_Fraser_River.pdf

Troper, H. (2021). Immigration to Canada. The Canadian Encyclopedia. https://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.ca/en/article/immigration

University of the Fraser Valley. (2021). History of South Asians in Canada: Timeline. South Asian Studies Institute. https://www.southasiancanadianheritage.ca/history-of-south-asians-in-canada/

Walker, B. (Ed.). (2008). The history of immigration and racism in Canada: Essential readings. Canadian Scholars Press.

Whitaker, R. (1991). Canadian immigration policy since Confederation. Canada’s Ethnic Groups series: Booklet no. 15. Canadian Historical Association. https://cha-shc.ca/_uploads/5c374d81cca15.pdf

Widdis, R. W. (1992). Saskatchewan bound: Immigration to a new Canadian frontier. Great Plains Quarterly, 12(4), 254–268. http://digitalcommons.unl.edu/greatplainsquarterly/649

Wilkinson, L., Bhattacharyya, P., Riziki, A., & Abdul-Karim, A. (2019). Yazidi resettlement in Canada – Final report 2018. University of Manitoba. https://umanitoba.ca/faculties/arts/research/media/YAZIDI_FINAL_FEB14_2019.pdf

Wilson, K. (2018). Pulling Together: Foundations Guide. Victoria, BC: BCcampus. Retrieved from https://opentextbc.ca/indigenizationfoundations/

Zucchi, J. (2007). A history of ethnic enclaves in Canada. Canada’s Ethnic Groups series: Booklet no. 31. Canadian Historical Association. https://cha-shc.ca/_uploads/5c374f720fa95.pdf

Media Attributions

Arienne – SeeYouSoon Travel. (2018, May 10). Halifax’s Pier 21 and my family’s immigration story | Nova Scotia [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-LjZ0-blNho

Canadian Heritage. (2017, April 21). Remembering the journey to Canada of Vietnamese refugees – Asian heritage month. [Video]. YouTube. https://youtu.be/rGPbCUj7s0I

Canadian Immigration Channel. (2017, May 28). Do not use settlement services. Immigration to Canada. LP Group [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dyZBslW4XIE

CBC. (2017, April 9). Hunting treasure | Canada: The story of us, full episode 2. [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Q8rheibq-nM

CBC. (2017, June 4). The Canadian experiment | Canada: The story of us, full episode 10 [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-ePe1EjxB7o

The Fifth Estate. (2017, August 25). Japanese deportations in Canada during WWII: Throwaway citizens (1995) – The Fifth Estate [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ggNYkFg6AjA

The Fifth Estate. (2017, March 20). After the crossing: Refugees in Canada – The Fifth Estate [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8ba45eXFBW8

Historica Canada. (2015, May 20). Jason’s story: Embracing the hyphen in Korean-Canadian [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IBaWoeXE5Uc

Historica Canada. (2017, June 19). Heritage minutes: “Boat people” refugees [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=v4nKkqdnVCM

In Canada. (2019, September 19). Challenges for new immigrants in Canada [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kvPVkVyQNbo

New Canadians. (2018, October 26). Passages Canada introduces today’s immigrants to Canada [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jEIw_gwDoDE

Sidhu, S. (2014, September 16). We are not strangers documentary about 1907 Bellingham riots [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mvn_LpXj694&t=306s

Storyhive. (2017, May 19). The surprising story of Canada’s enemy aliens. [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UY4vTBQTpUA&t=20s

TEDx Talks. (2018, July 16). What did two years in Canada teach me? [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=G4nJwLBllDM

TEDx Talks. (2013, October 23). The big shift – Understanding the new Canadian: Darrell Bricker at TedxToronto [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nquKRW7W78I

TEDx Talks. (2013, July 16). Why Canadian history isn’t as boring as you think it is: Chris Turner at TEDxYYC [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CBPvQRazhw8

University of British Columbia. (2016, June 15). An act of grace: UBC’s first Sikh immigrant family [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IUcn8oIejWs

The Wanders of Chi. (2020, June 27). My Canadian immigration story: Why I decided to move to Canada permanently [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=V2FuzQ6e6xU

Share This Book