Chapter __: “Too Hot to Handle” – Human Migration on a Rapidly-Warming Planet

Chapter References and Attributions


Abdullah, A. (2022, April 13). The 10 Largest Refugee Crises to Follow in 2022. Concern World Wide USA.

Abnett, K. (2021, November 9). Explainer: What’s the difference between 1.5 and 2 degrees of global warming? Reuters.,for%20their%20food%20and%20livelihoods

Adam, D. (2008, May 13). World carbon dioxide levels highest for 650,000 years, says US report. The Guardian.

Akbar, M. & Preston, V. (2019). Migration and Resilience: Exploring the Stock of Knowledge [Unpublished manuscript]. Department of Geography, York University.

Al Jazeera Staff. (2022, February 27). ‘Double standards’: Western coverage of Ukraine war criticised. Al Jazeera News.

Alex, B. (2021, June 19). The Human Epoch: When Did the Anthropocene Begin? Discover Magazine.

Allan, R.P., Arias, P.A., Berger, S., Canadell, J.G., Cassou, C., Chen, D., Cherchi, A., Connors, S.L., Coppola, E., Abigail-Cruz, F., Diongue-Niang, A., Doblas-Reyes, F.J., Douville, H., Driouech, F., Edwards, T.L., Engellbrecht, F., Eyrring, V., Fischer, E., Flato, G.M.,…Zickfeld, K. (2021). Climate Change 2021: The Physical Science Basis (Summary for Policymakers). Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change – Sixth Assessment Report.

Allen, M., de Coninck, H., Engelbrecht, F., Ferrat, M., Ford, J., Fuss, S., Hawtin, N., Guldberg, O.H., Jacob, D., Ley, D., Liverman, D., Masson-Delmotte, V., Millar, R., Newman, P., Payne, A., Perez, R., Rogelj, J., Seneviratne, S.I., Singh, C.,… Tschakert, P. (2018). Climate Change 2021: The Physical Science Basis (Frequently Asked  Questions). Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change – Sixth Assessment Report.

Almeida, T. (2022, April 6). The most urgent refugee crises around the world. World Vision.

Amnesty International. (n.d.). The World’s Refugees in Numbers.

Apap, J. (2019). The concept of ‘climate refugee’ – Towards a possible definition. European Parliamentary Research Service.

Azhar, G. (2017, December 18). Climate change will displace millions in coming decades.  Nations should prepare now to help them. The Conversation.

Azzi, S. & Foot, R. (2021). Canada and the War in Afghanistan. The Canadian Encyclopedia.

Bates, D. (2002). Clarrifying Human Migrations Caused by Environmental Change. Population and Environment, 23(5), 465-477.

Beauchemin, G. & Mae Jones, A. (2022, May 3). Some Afghan refugees settling into life in Canada, but others still stranded. CTV News.

British Broadcasting Corporation. (n.d.). Why has the Syrian war lasted 11 years? BBC News.

Brown, L. (2011). World on the Edge: How to Prevent Environmental and Economic Collapse. Earth Policy Institute.

Bures, E. (2020, August 1). When Everything Is a Crisis, Nothing Is. Foreign Policy.

Burkett, M. (2012). Climate Refugees. In S. Alam, M. Bhuiyan, T. Chowdhury & E. Techera (Eds.), Routledge Handbook of International Law (pp. 717-729). Routledge.

Canadian Council for Refugees. (n.d.). Talking About Refugees and Immigrants: A Glossary Of Terms.

Caldararu, A. (2021). Social Justice in Settlement Work. In O. Vergara, S. Oswald, A. Caldararu, L. Sutankayo, W. Ilott, R. Dela Cruz & W. Chambers (Eds.), Canadian Settlement in Action: History and Future (pp. 75-136). NorQuest College.

Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. (2022, April 19). This veterans group says it can no longer help people get out of Afghanistan. CBC Radio.

Catholic Agency for Overseas Development. (2022, April 26). Refugee crisis explained.

CBC News: The National. (2017, October 25). How much do refugees and immigrants get in social assistance? [Video file]. YouTube.

Chatterjee, I. & Ahmed, W. (2019). Dialectical materialism: Marx’s method in human geography? ACME: An International Journal for Critical Geographies, 18(2), 364-393.

Climateurope. (n.d.). What is climate? What is climate change?

Climate Signals. (n.d.). Atmospheric Moisture Increase.

Cole, D. (2017, January 13). Study: What Was The Impact Of The Iconic Photo Of The Syrian Boy? NPR News.

Cook, J. et al. (2016). Consensus on consensus: a synthesis of consensus estimates on human caused global warming. Environmental Research Letters, 11, 1-6.

Council on Foreign Relations. (2022). Conflict in Ukraine.

Cramer, L. (2021). The Effects of Climate Change on the Syrian Uprising. In K. Clark, T. Shaul, & B. Lower (Eds.), Environmental ScienceBites. School of Environment and Natural Resources, Ohio State University.

David Suzuki Foundation. (n.d.). What is climate change? change/?gclid=Cj0KCQjwspKUBhCvARIsAB2IYuv_zBZ0UglTaWDU2b8AgzxhSPWtH_x21GUzRqYUjmLNELHEdXuMy7IaAk1NEALw_wcB

Debusmann Jr., B. (2022, May 11). Afghan interpreters fear families ‘forgotten’ by Canada. BBC News.

Denchak, M. (2019, July 16). Greenhouse Effect 101. Natural Resources Defence Council, Inc.,What%20Are%20Greenhouse%20Gases%3F,gases%20(which%20are%20synthetic)

El-Hinnawi, E. (1985). Environmental Refugees. United Nations Environmental Programme.

Encyclopedia Britannica. (n.d.). Arab Spring Pro-Democracy Protests.

Encyclopedia Britannica. (n.d.). Syrian Civil War.

European University Institute. (n.d.). What is the difference between forced and voluntary migration? FutureLearn.

Everbridge. (n.d.). Crisis Emergency vs. Routine Emergency.

Facing History and Ourselves Collective. (n.d.). Understanding the Global Refugee Crisis. Facing History and Ourselves Publications.

France 24. (2022, March 1). Arabs decry ‘racist’ double standard in Ukraine media commentary.

France 24. (2015, July 7). Environmental migrants: The neglected refugees [Video file]. YouTube.

Government of Canada. (2022, March 3). Canada to welcome those fleeing the war in Ukraine.

Government of Canada. (n.d.). Canada’s achievements at COP26.

Government of Canada. (n.d.). Canada’s response to the conflict in Syria.

Government of Canada. (n.d.). Do government-assisted refugees get more income support and benefits than Canadian pensioners do?

Government of Canada. (n.d.). How Canada’s refugee system works.

Government of Canada. (n.d.). Immigrate to Canada.

Government of Canada. (n.d.). Refugees and asylum.

Government of Canada. (n.d.). Welcoming Afghans.

Government of Finland. (n.d.). Aliens Act.

Guterres, A. (2019, September 23). Remarks at 2019 Climate Action Summit. United Nations Secretary-General.

History Network. (n.d.). September 11 Attacks.

Holder, J., Kommenda, N., & Watts, J. (2017, November 03). The three-degree world: the cities that will be drowned by global warming. The Guardian.

Hope, W. (2020). The Anthropocene, global capitalism, and the crisis of futurity. New Zealand Sociology, 35(2), 121-141.

Human Rights Watch. (n.d.). What’s Next for Afghans Fleeing the Taliban?

Hush, E. (2017, September 07). Developing a European Model of International Protection for Environmentally-Displaced Persons: Lessons from Finland and Sweden. Columbia

Journal of European Law.

Iberdrola. (n.d.). Kiribati, the first country rising sea levels will swallow up as a result of climate change.,for%20islands%20and%20coastal%20regions

Immigration and Refugee Board of Canada. (n.d.). About the Immigration and Refugee Board of Canada.

Kalata, N. (2021, March 15). Syrian refugees reflect on a decade of war and their new lives in the Toronto area. CBC News.

Kälin, W. & Schrepfer, N. (2012). Protecting People Crossing Borders in the Context of Climate Change Normative Gaps and Possible Approaches. United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees Legal and Protection Policy Research Series.

Keyes, E. (2019). Environmental Refugees? What’s in a Name. North Carolina Journal of International Law, 461(44), 1-27.

Kinzler, R. (n.d.). When and how did the ice age end? Could another one start? American Museum of Natural History.

Kraler, A., Cernei, T., & Noack, M. (2011). “Climate Refugees”: Legal and policy responses to environmentally induced migration. European Union Directorate General for Internal Policies.

Lambert, H. (2022, February 26). CBS Reporter Calls Ukraine ‘Relatively Civilized’ as Opposed to Iraq and Afghanistan, Outrage Ensues. The Wrap.

Lee, H. (2020, July 21). How Earth’s Climate Changes Naturally (and Why Things Are Different Now). Quanta Magazine.

Levin, M. (2022, May 12). Conflict in Ukraine – Background. Center for Preventive Action.

Lewis, A. & Maslin, M. (2015). Defining the Anthropocene. Nature, 519, 171-180.

Lewis, R. (2015, December 02). Climate change already affecting migration patterns around the world. Al Jazeera America.

Library of Congress. (2021, June 28). International: Record Number of People Forcibly Displaced in 2020.

Lombrana, L.M. (2021, May 25). In 2020, more people displaced by extreme climate than conflict. Al Jazeera News.

Marx, K. (1857). Grundrisse: Foundations of a Critique of Political Economy. Penguin Random House Canada.

McCarthy, J. (2021, July 30). Climate Crisis: What’s the Difference Between a Rist of 1.5, 2, and 3 Degrees Celsius? Global Citizen Magazine.

Military History Fandom. (n.d.). Military Occupation.

Molnar, P. (2017). Canadian Response to the Syrian Refugee Crisis. The Canadian Encyclopedia.

Mukheibir, P. & Mallam, P. (2019, September 30). Climate crisis – what’s it good for? The Fifth Estate.

Myers, N. (2002). Environmental refugees: a growing phenomenon of the 21st century. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 357(1420), 609-613.

Myers, N. (1993). Environmental Refugees in a Globally Warmed World: Estimating the Scope of What Could Well Become a Prominent International Phenomenon. BioScience, 43(11), 752-761.

National Geographic. (n.d.). Weather.

National Public Radio Network. (n.d.). Ukraine invasion – explained.

North American Space Agency. (n.d.). Scientific Consensus: Earth’s Climate is Warming.

Ontario Association of Children’s Aid Societies. (n.d.). Poverty and Child Welfare.

Phelps, R. (2019). Leadership in Times of Crisis. Disaster Recovery Journal.

Polońska-Kimunguyi, P. (2022, May 10). War, Resistance and Refuge: Racism and double standards in western media coverage of Ukraine. London School of Economics Department of Media and Communications.

Smith, D. & Waggoner, B.M. (2011). The Holocene Epoch. International Commission on Stratigraphy.,the%20Holocene%20has%20been%20a

Soussi, T. (2021). Islamophobia in Canada. The Canadian Encyclopedia.

Su, Y. (2020, January 29). UN ruling on climate refugees could be gamechanger for climate action. Climate Home News.

Sun Hwang, P.K. (2022, June 22). Other newcomers forgotten as eyes remain on Ukraine, say advocates. CBC News.

Tahir, A.F. (2022, March 3). Selective empathy: Western media’s horrific double standards amid Russia-Ukraine war. Al Hakam Weekly.

Tasker, J.P. (2022, March 3). Canada prepared to welcome an ‘unlimited number’ of Ukrainians fleeing war, minister says. CBC News.

The Canadian Encyclopedia. (n.d.). Second World War Collection.

The Canadian Press. (2019, June 20). Canada resettlement more refugees than any other country in 2018, UN says. CBC News.

The World Bank. (2018, March 19). Climate Change Could Force Over 140 Million to Migrate Within Countries by 2050: World Bank Report.

Tran, P. (2022, April 20). Alberta government committed to helping Ukrainians, but mum on other refugees. Global News.

United Nations. (n.d.). The Climate Crisis – A Race We Can Win.

United Nations. (2017). Global Compact for Migration.

United Nations. (1948). Universal Declaration of Human Rights.

United Nations Climate Action. (n.d.). COP26: Together for our planet.

United Nations Climate Change. (n.d.). The Paris Agreement. meetings/the-paris-agreement/the-paris-agreement

United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees. (2022, June 16). Refugee Data Finder.

United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (2018). The Global Compact on Refugees.

United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (1967). The Protocol Relating to the Status of Refugees.

United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (1951). The 1951 Refugee Convention on the Status of Refugees.

United Nations Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights (2020, January 21). Historic UN Human Rights case opens door to climate change asylum claims.

United States Forest Service. (n.d.). Natural Climate Cycles.

Vaughan, A. (2019, September 25). IPCC report: Sea levels could be a metre higher by 2100. New Scientist Magazine.

Vierlinger, J. (2022, April 20). UN: Ukraine’s refugee crisis is Europe’s biggest since WWII. Atlantic Council.

Wamubi, M.W. (2011). Dialectical Materialism and Historical Dialectics of Karl Marx [Unpublished manuscript]. University of Nairobi.

Weiss, K.R. (2015, January 28). The Making of a Climate Refugee. Foreign Policy.

World Meteorological Organization. (2022, May 9). WMO update: 50:50 chance of global temperature temporarily reaching 1.5 degree threshold in next five years.

World Meteorological Organization. (2021, November 10). Climate change increases threats in South West Pacific.

World Population Review. (2002). Ecological Footprint by Country 2022.

Zimonjic, P. (2021, November 25). Canada’s climate change efforts going from ‘failure to failure,’ says commissioner’s report. CBC News.

Share This Book