Chapter __: “Too Hot to Handle” – Human Migration on a Rapidly-Warming Planet

Chapter References and Attributions

References

Abdullah, A. (2022, April 13). The 10 Largest Refugee Crises to Follow in 2022. Concern World Wide USA. https://www.concernusa.org/story/largest-refugee-crises/

Abnett, K. (2021, November 9). Explainer: What’s the difference between 1.5 and 2 degrees of global warming? Reuters. https://www.reuters.com/business/cop/whats-difference-between-15c-2c-global-warming-2021-11-07/#:~:text=Warming%20of%201.5%C2%B0C,for%20their%20food%20and%20livelihoods

Adam, D. (2008, May 13). World carbon dioxide levels highest for 650,000 years, says US report. The Guardian. https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2008/may/13/carbonemissions.climatechange

Akbar, M. & Preston, V. (2019). Migration and Resilience: Exploring the Stock of Knowledge [Unpublished manuscript]. Department of Geography, York University.

Al Jazeera Staff. (2022, February 27). ‘Double standards’: Western coverage of Ukraine war criticised. Al Jazeera News. https://www.aljazeera.com/news/2022/2/27/western-media-coverage-ukraine-russia-invasion-criticism

Alex, B. (2021, June 19). The Human Epoch: When Did the Anthropocene Begin? Discover Magazine. https://www.discovermagazine.com/environment/the-human-epoch-when-did-the-anthropocene-begin

Allan, R.P., Arias, P.A., Berger, S., Canadell, J.G., Cassou, C., Chen, D., Cherchi, A., Connors, S.L., Coppola, E., Abigail-Cruz, F., Diongue-Niang, A., Doblas-Reyes, F.J., Douville, H., Driouech, F., Edwards, T.L., Engellbrecht, F., Eyrring, V., Fischer, E., Flato, G.M.,…Zickfeld, K. (2021). Climate Change 2021: The Physical Science Basis (Summary for Policymakers). Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change – Sixth Assessment Report. https://www.ipcc.ch/report/ar6/wg1/downloads/report/IPCC_AR6_WGI_SPM.pdf

Allen, M., de Coninck, H., Engelbrecht, F., Ferrat, M., Ford, J., Fuss, S., Hawtin, N., Guldberg, O.H., Jacob, D., Ley, D., Liverman, D., Masson-Delmotte, V., Millar, R., Newman, P., Payne, A., Perez, R., Rogelj, J., Seneviratne, S.I., Singh, C.,… Tschakert, P. (2018). Climate Change 2021: The Physical Science Basis (Frequently Asked  Questions). Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change – Sixth Assessment Report. https://www.ipcc.ch/site/assets/uploads/sites/2/2018/12/SR15_FAQ_Low_Res.pdf

Almeida, T. (2022, April 6). The most urgent refugee crises around the world. World Vision. https://www.worldvision.ca/stories/refugees/refugee-crises-around-the-world

Amnesty International. (n.d.). The World’s Refugees in Numbers. https://www.amnesty.org/en/what-we-do/refugees-asylum-seekers-and-migrants/global-refugee-crisis-statistics-and-facts/

Apap, J. (2019). The concept of ‘climate refugee’ – Towards a possible definition. European Parliamentary Research Service. https://www.europarl.europa.eu/RegData/etudes/BRIE/2018/621893/EPRS_BRI(2018)621893_EN.pdf

Azhar, G. (2017, December 18). Climate change will displace millions in coming decades.  Nations should prepare now to help them. The Conversation. https://theconversation.com/climate-change-will-displace-millions-in-coming-decades-nations-should-prepare-now-to-help-them-89274

Azzi, S. & Foot, R. (2021). Canada and the War in Afghanistan. The Canadian Encyclopedia. https://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.ca/en/article/international-campaign-against-terrorism-in-afghanistan?gclid=CjwKCAjwyryUBhBSEiwAGN5OCJ1rLzoBCzkV3zY9utSeVaMQclC_b9N7BDyfV5UnkPZRqAna2ZHlPRoCu6AQAvD_BwE

Bates, D. (2002). Clarrifying Human Migrations Caused by Environmental Change. Population and Environment, 23(5), 465-477.

Beauchemin, G. & Mae Jones, A. (2022, May 3). Some Afghan refugees settling into life in Canada, but others still stranded. CTV News. https://www.ctvnews.ca/canada/some-afghan-refugees-settling-into-life-in-canada-but-others-still-stranded-1.5885939

British Broadcasting Corporation. (n.d.). Why has the Syrian war lasted 11 years? BBC News. https://www.bbc.com/news/world-middle-east-35806229

Brown, L. (2011). World on the Edge: How to Prevent Environmental and Economic Collapse. Earth Policy Institute.

Bures, E. (2020, August 1). When Everything Is a Crisis, Nothing Is. Foreign Policy. https://foreignpolicy.com/2020/08/01/when-everything-is-a-crisis-nothing-is/

Burkett, M. (2012). Climate Refugees. In S. Alam, M. Bhuiyan, T. Chowdhury & E. Techera (Eds.), Routledge Handbook of International Law (pp. 717-729). Routledge.

Canadian Council for Refugees. (n.d.). Talking About Refugees and Immigrants: A Glossary Of Terms. https://ccrweb.ca/sites/ccrweb.ca/files/static-files/glossary.PDF

Caldararu, A. (2021). Social Justice in Settlement Work. In O. Vergara, S. Oswald, A. Caldararu, L. Sutankayo, W. Ilott, R. Dela Cruz & W. Chambers (Eds.), Canadian Settlement in Action: History and Future (pp. 75-136). NorQuest College.

Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. (2022, April 19). This veterans group says it can no longer help people get out of Afghanistan. CBC Radio. https://www.cbc.ca/radio/asithappens/as-it-happens-the-tuesday-edition-1.6423423/this-veterans-group-says-it-can-no-longer-help-people-get-out-of-afghanistan-1.6423615

Catholic Agency for Overseas Development. (2022, April 26). Refugee crisis explained. https://cafod.org.uk/News/International-news/Refugee-crisis-Q-A

CBC News: The National. (2017, October 25). How much do refugees and immigrants get in social assistance? [Video file]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=13aml32ujw0

Chatterjee, I. & Ahmed, W. (2019). Dialectical materialism: Marx’s method in human geography? ACME: An International Journal for Critical Geographies, 18(2), 364-393.

Climateurope. (n.d.). What is climate? What is climate change? https://www.climateurope.eu/what-is-climate-and-climate-change/

Climate Signals. (n.d.). Atmospheric Moisture Increase. https://www.climatesignals.org/climate-signals/atmospheric-moisture-increase

Cole, D. (2017, January 13). Study: What Was The Impact Of The Iconic Photo Of The Syrian Boy? NPR News. https://www.npr.org/sections/goatsandsoda/2017/01/13/509650251/study-what-was-the-impact-of-the-iconic-photo-of-the-syrian-boy

Cook, J. et al. (2016). Consensus on consensus: a synthesis of consensus estimates on human caused global warming. Environmental Research Letters, 11, 1-6.

Council on Foreign Relations. (2022). Conflict in Ukraine. https://www.cfr.org/global-conflict-tracker/conflict/conflict-ukraine

Cramer, L. (2021). The Effects of Climate Change on the Syrian Uprising. In K. Clark, T. Shaul, & B. Lower (Eds.), Environmental ScienceBites. School of Environment and Natural Resources, Ohio State University. https://ohiostate.pressbooks.pub/sciencebites/front-matter/copyright/

David Suzuki Foundation. (n.d.). What is climate change? https://davidsuzuki.org/what-you-can-do/what-is-climate change/?gclid=Cj0KCQjwspKUBhCvARIsAB2IYuv_zBZ0UglTaWDU2b8AgzxhSPWtH_x21GUzRqYUjmLNELHEdXuMy7IaAk1NEALw_wcB

Debusmann Jr., B. (2022, May 11). Afghan interpreters fear families ‘forgotten’ by Canada. BBC News. https://www.bbc.com/news/world-us-canada-61251228

Denchak, M. (2019, July 16). Greenhouse Effect 101. Natural Resources Defence Council, Inc. https://www.nrdc.org/stories/greenhouse-effect-101#:~:text=Bednarski%20for%20NRDC-,What%20Are%20Greenhouse%20Gases%3F,gases%20(which%20are%20synthetic)

El-Hinnawi, E. (1985). Environmental Refugees. United Nations Environmental Programme. https://digitallibrary.un.org/record/121267?ln=en

Encyclopedia Britannica. (n.d.). Arab Spring Pro-Democracy Protests. https://www.britannica.com/event/Arab-Spring

Encyclopedia Britannica. (n.d.). Syrian Civil War. https://www.britannica.com/event/Syrian-Civil-War/Civil-war

European University Institute. (n.d.). What is the difference between forced and voluntary migration? FutureLearn. https://www.futurelearn.com/info/courses/migration-facts/0/steps/34214

Everbridge. (n.d.). Crisis Emergency vs. Routine Emergency. https://www.everbridge.com/blog/crisis-emergency-vs-routine-emergency/

Facing History and Ourselves Collective. (n.d.). Understanding the Global Refugee Crisis. Facing History and Ourselves Publications.

France 24. (2022, March 1). Arabs decry ‘racist’ double standard in Ukraine media commentary. https://www.france24.com/en/live-news/20220301-arabs-decry-racist-double-standard-in-ukraine-media-commentary

France 24. (2015, July 7). Environmental migrants: The neglected refugees [Video file]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PbNe64DfyfY

Government of Canada. (2022, March 3). Canada to welcome those fleeing the war in Ukraine. https://www.canada.ca/en/immigration-refugees-citizenship/news/2022/03/canada-to-welcome-those-fleeing-the-war-in-ukraine.html

Government of Canada. (n.d.). Canada’s achievements at COP26. https://www.canada.ca/en/services/environment/weather/climatechange/canada-international-action/un-climate-change-conference/cop26-summit/achievements-at-cop26.html

Government of Canada. (n.d.). Canada’s response to the conflict in Syria. https://www.international.gc.ca/world-monde/issues_development-enjeux_developpement/response_conflict-reponse_conflits/crisis-crises/conflict_syria-syrie.aspx?lang=eng

Government of Canada. (n.d.). Do government-assisted refugees get more income support and benefits than Canadian pensioners do? https://www.cic.gc.ca/english/helpcentre/answer.asp?qnum=105&top=11

Government of Canada. (n.d.). How Canada’s refugee system works. https://www.canada.ca/en/immigration-refugees-citizenship/services/refugees/canada-role.html

Government of Canada. (n.d.). Immigrate to Canada. https://www.canada.ca/en/immigration-refugees-citizenship/services/immigrate-canada.html

Government of Canada. (n.d.). Refugees and asylum. https://www.canada.ca/en/immigration-refugees-citizenship/services/refugees.html

Government of Canada. (n.d.). Welcoming Afghans. https://www.canada.ca/en/immigration-refugees-citizenship/services/refugees/afghanistan.html

Government of Finland. (n.d.). Aliens Act. https://finlex.fi/en/laki/kaannokset/2004/en20040301.pdf

Guterres, A. (2019, September 23). Remarks at 2019 Climate Action Summit. United Nations Secretary-General. https://www.un.org/sg/en/content/sg/speeches/2019-09-23/remarks-2019-climate-action-summit

History Network. (n.d.). September 11 Attacks. https://www.history.com/topics/21st-century/9-11-attacks

Holder, J., Kommenda, N., & Watts, J. (2017, November 03). The three-degree world: the cities that will be drowned by global warming. The Guardian. https://www.theguardian.com/cities/ng-interactive/2017/nov/03/three-degree-world-cities-drowned-global-warming

Hope, W. (2020). The Anthropocene, global capitalism, and the crisis of futurity. New Zealand Sociology, 35(2), 121-141.

Human Rights Watch. (n.d.). What’s Next for Afghans Fleeing the Taliban? https://www.hrw.org/news/2021/09/09/whats-next-afghans-fleeing-taliban

Hush, E. (2017, September 07). Developing a European Model of International Protection for Environmentally-Displaced Persons: Lessons from Finland and Sweden. Columbia

Journal of European Law. http://cjel.law.columbia.edu/preliminary-reference/2017/developing-a-european-model-of-international-protection-for-environmentally-displaced-persons-lessons-from-finland-and-sweden/

Iberdrola. (n.d.). Kiribati, the first country rising sea levels will swallow up as a result of climate change. https://www.iberdrola.com/sustainability/kiribati-climate-change#:~:text=Kiribati%2C%20the%20first%20country%20rising,for%20islands%20and%20coastal%20regions

Immigration and Refugee Board of Canada. (n.d.). About the Immigration and Refugee Board of Canada. https://irb.gc.ca/en/Pages/index.aspx

Kalata, N. (2021, March 15). Syrian refugees reflect on a decade of war and their new lives in the Toronto area. CBC News. https://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/toronto/syrian-refugees-reflect-on-a-decade-of-war-and-their-new-lives-in-the-toronto-area-1.5947946

Kälin, W. & Schrepfer, N. (2012). Protecting People Crossing Borders in the Context of Climate Change Normative Gaps and Possible Approaches. United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees Legal and Protection Policy Research Series. https://www.refworld.org/docid/4f38a9422.html

Keyes, E. (2019). Environmental Refugees? What’s in a Name. North Carolina Journal of International Law, 461(44), 1-27.

Kinzler, R. (n.d.). When and how did the ice age end? Could another one start? American Museum of Natural History. https://www.amnh.org/explore/ology/earth/ask-a-scientist-about-our-environment/how-did-the-ice-age-end

Kraler, A., Cernei, T., & Noack, M. (2011). “Climate Refugees”: Legal and policy responses to environmentally induced migration. European Union Directorate General for Internal Policies. https://www.europarl.europa.eu/RegData/etudes/etudes/join/2011/462422/IPOL-LIBE_ET(2011)462422_EN.pdf

Lambert, H. (2022, February 26). CBS Reporter Calls Ukraine ‘Relatively Civilized’ as Opposed to Iraq and Afghanistan, Outrage Ensues. The Wrap. https://www.thewrap.com/cbs-charlie-dagata-backlash-ukraine-civilized/

Lee, H. (2020, July 21). How Earth’s Climate Changes Naturally (and Why Things Are Different Now). Quanta Magazine. https://www.quantamagazine.org/how-earths-climate-changes-naturally-and-why-things-are-different-now-20200721/

Levin, M. (2022, May 12). Conflict in Ukraine – Background. Center for Preventive Action. https://www.cfr.org/global-conflict-tracker/conflict/conflict-ukraine

Lewis, A. & Maslin, M. (2015). Defining the Anthropocene. Nature, 519, 171-180.

Lewis, R. (2015, December 02). Climate change already affecting migration patterns around the world. Al Jazeera America. http://america.aljazeera.com/articles/2015/12/2/climate-change-impacting-migration-patterns.html

Library of Congress. (2021, June 28). International: Record Number of People Forcibly Displaced in 2020. https://www.loc.gov/item/global-legal-monitor/2021-06-28/international-record-number-of-people-forcibly-displaced-in-2020/

Lombrana, L.M. (2021, May 25). In 2020, more people displaced by extreme climate than conflict. Al Jazeera News. https://www.aljazeera.com/economy/2021/5/25/bbin-2020-more-people-displaced-by-extreme-climate-than-conflict

Marx, K. (1857). Grundrisse: Foundations of a Critique of Political Economy. Penguin Random House Canada.

McCarthy, J. (2021, July 30). Climate Crisis: What’s the Difference Between a Rist of 1.5, 2, and 3 Degrees Celsius? Global Citizen Magazine. https://www.globalcitizen.org/en/content/the-difference-in-global-warming-levels-explained/?gclid=EAIaIQobChMI1_6NzqLv9wIVhRmtBh1FSwlIEAAYAyAAEgJuaPD_BwE

Military History Fandom. (n.d.). Military Occupation. https://military-history.fandom.com/wiki/Military_occupation

Molnar, P. (2017). Canadian Response to the Syrian Refugee Crisis. The Canadian Encyclopedia. https://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.ca/en/article/canadian-response-to-the-syrian-refugee-crisis

Mukheibir, P. & Mallam, P. (2019, September 30). Climate crisis – what’s it good for? The Fifth Estate. https://thefifthestate.com.au/urbanism/climate-change-news/climate-crisis-whats-it-good-for/

Myers, N. (2002). Environmental refugees: a growing phenomenon of the 21st century. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 357(1420), 609-613.

Myers, N. (1993). Environmental Refugees in a Globally Warmed World: Estimating the Scope of What Could Well Become a Prominent International Phenomenon. BioScience, 43(11), 752-761.

National Geographic. (n.d.). Weather. https://education.nationalgeographic.org/resource/resource-library-weather

National Public Radio Network. (n.d.). Ukraine invasion – explained. https://www.npr.org/series/1082539802/russia-ukraine-invasion-explained

North American Space Agency. (n.d.). Scientific Consensus: Earth’s Climate is Warming. https://climate.nasa.gov/scientific-consensus/

Ontario Association of Children’s Aid Societies. (n.d.). Poverty and Child Welfare. https://oacas.libguides.com/c.php?g=702168&p=4992460

Phelps, R. (2019). Leadership in Times of Crisis. Disaster Recovery Journal. https://drj.com/journal_main/leadership-in-times-of-crisis/

Polońska-Kimunguyi, P. (2022, May 10). War, Resistance and Refuge: Racism and double standards in western media coverage of Ukraine. London School of Economics Department of Media and Communications. https://blogs.lse.ac.uk/medialse/2022/05/10/war-resistance-and-refuge-racism-and-double-standards-in-western-media-coverage-of-ukraine/

Smith, D. & Waggoner, B.M. (2011). The Holocene Epoch. International Commission on Stratigraphy. https://ucmp.berkeley.edu/quaternary/holocene.php#:~:text=The%20Holocene%20is%20the%20name,the%20Holocene%20has%20been%20a

Soussi, T. (2021). Islamophobia in Canada. The Canadian Encyclopedia. https://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.ca/en/article/Islamophobia

Su, Y. (2020, January 29). UN ruling on climate refugees could be gamechanger for climate action. Climate Home News. https://www.climatechangenews.com/2020/01/29/un-ruling-climate-refugees-gamechanger-climate-action/

Sun Hwang, P.K. (2022, June 22). Other newcomers forgotten as eyes remain on Ukraine, say advocates. CBC News. https://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/ottawa/newcomers-refugees-settle-ottawa-ukraine-afghanistan-support-1.6496103

Tahir, A.F. (2022, March 3). Selective empathy: Western media’s horrific double standards amid Russia-Ukraine war. Al Hakam Weekly. https://www.alhakam.org/selective-empathy-western-medias-horrific-double-standards-amid-russia-ukraine-war/

Tasker, J.P. (2022, March 3). Canada prepared to welcome an ‘unlimited number’ of Ukrainians fleeing war, minister says. CBC News. https://www.cbc.ca/news/politics/canada-unlimited-number-ukrainians-1.6371288

The Canadian Encyclopedia. (n.d.). Second World War Collection. https://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.ca/en/collection/second-world-war

The Canadian Press. (2019, June 20). Canada resettlement more refugees than any other country in 2018, UN says. CBC News. https://www.cbc.ca/news/politics/canada-resettled-most-refugees-un-1.5182621

The World Bank. (2018, March 19). Climate Change Could Force Over 140 Million to Migrate Within Countries by 2050: World Bank Report. https://www.worldbank.org/en/news/press-release/2018/03/19/climate-change-could-force-over-140-million-to-migrate-within-countries-by-2050-world-bank-report

Tran, P. (2022, April 20). Alberta government committed to helping Ukrainians, but mum on other refugees. Global News. https://globalnews.ca/news/8772385/alberta-government-ukraine-refugee-support/

United Nations. (n.d.). The Climate Crisis – A Race We Can Win. https://www.un.org/en/un75/climate-crisis-race-we-can-win

United Nations. (2017). Global Compact for Migration. https://refugeesmigrants.un.org/migration-compact

United Nations. (1948). Universal Declaration of Human Rights. https://www.un.org/en/about-us/universal-declaration-of-human-rights

United Nations Climate Action. (n.d.). COP26: Together for our planet. https://www.un.org/en/climatechange/cop26

United Nations Climate Change. (n.d.). The Paris Agreement. https://unfccc.int/process-and meetings/the-paris-agreement/the-paris-agreement

United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees. (2022, June 16). Refugee Data Finder. https://www.unhcr.org/refugee-statistics/

United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (2018). The Global Compact on Refugees. https://www.unhcr.org/the-global-compact-on-refugees.html

United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (1967). The Protocol Relating to the Status of Refugees. https://www.unhcr.org/5d9ed66a4

United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (1951). The 1951 Refugee Convention on the Status of Refugees. https://www.unhcr.org/1951-refugee-convention.html

United Nations Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights (2020, January 21). Historic UN Human Rights case opens door to climate change asylum claims. https://www.ohchr.org/en/press-releases/2020/01/historic-un-human-rights-case-opens-door-climate-change-asylum-claims?LangID=E&NewsID=25482

United States Forest Service. (n.d.). Natural Climate Cycles. https://www.fs.usda.gov/ccrc/education/climate-primer/natural-climate-cycles

Vaughan, A. (2019, September 25). IPCC report: Sea levels could be a metre higher by 2100. New Scientist Magazine. https://www.newscientist.com/article/2217611-ipcc-report-sea-levels-could-be-a-metre-higher-by-2100/

Vierlinger, J. (2022, April 20). UN: Ukraine’s refugee crisis is Europe’s biggest since WWII. Atlantic Council. https://www.atlanticcouncil.org/blogs/ukrainealert/un-ukraine-refugee-crisis-is-europes-biggest-since-wwii/

Wamubi, M.W. (2011). Dialectical Materialism and Historical Dialectics of Karl Marx [Unpublished manuscript]. University of Nairobi.

Weiss, K.R. (2015, January 28). The Making of a Climate Refugee. Foreign Policy. https://foreignpolicy.com/2015/01/28/the-making-of-a-climate-refugee-kiribati-tarawa-teitiota/

World Meteorological Organization. (2022, May 9). WMO update: 50:50 chance of global temperature temporarily reaching 1.5 degree threshold in next five years. https://public.wmo.int/en/media/press-release/wmo-update-5050-chance-of-global-temperature-temporarily-reaching-15%C2%B0c-threshold

World Meteorological Organization. (2021, November 10). Climate change increases threats in South West Pacific. https://public.wmo.int/en/media/press-release/climate-change-increases-threats-south-west-pacific

World Population Review. (2002). Ecological Footprint by Country 2022. https://worldpopulationreview.com/country-rankings/ecological-footprint-by-country

Zimonjic, P. (2021, November 25). Canada’s climate change efforts going from ‘failure to failure,’ says commissioner’s report. CBC News. https://www.cbc.ca/news/politics/environment-commissioner-report-failure-to-failure-1.6262523

Share This Book