Works Cited List

Citing Personal Communications

Sometimes research involves contact with individuals or organizations, such as through interviews or emails. These types of information are generally not formally published, so they’re treated a bit differently from other sources. Click through the slides below to learn more.

 

Personal Communication Citation Examples

Below are two examples of personal communications.

Interview

This example is for an interview that you conducted. If someone else performed the interview, add their name under the Contributor element (see the slides above for an example).

Morrison, Toni. Interview with the author. 5 Jan. 2019.

The example above includes these citation elements:

Citation Element Example
Author. Morrison, Toni.
Title of Source. Interview with the author.
Publication Date. 5 Jan. 2019.

Email

Emails or text messages usually only include three elements: the person who sent the message, a description of the communication, and the date of the communication. For example:

Robinson, Eden. E-mail to the author. 8 May 2015.

The example above includes these citation elements:

Citation Element Example
Author. Rihanna.
Title of Source. E-mail to the author.
Publication Date. 8 May 2015.

Indigenous Elders and Knowledge Keepers

MLA does not have a specific format for citing Indigenous Elders and Knowledge Keepers.

In the spirit of wahk├┤htowin and reconciliation, NorQuest College Library continues to follow templates created by Lorisia MacLeod and NorQuest College Indigenous Student Centre staff that meet this need.

For example:

Cardinal, Delores., Goodfish Lake Cree Nation. Treaty 6. Lives in Edmonton. Oral teaching. 4 April 2004.

Note: If you would like to approach an Elder or Knowledge Keeper for teachings, remember to follow protocol or if you are unsure what their protocol is, please ask them ahead of time.

Citation Element Example
Last Name, First Name., Nation/Community. Cardinal, Delores., Goodfish Lake Cree Nation.
Treaty Territory. (if applicable) Treaty 6.
City/Community where they live. (if applicable) Lives in Edmonton.
Topic/subject of communication. (if applicable) Oral teaching.
Date. 4 April 2004.

Attribution

Indigenous Elders and Knowledge Keepers adapted from Indigenous Elders and Knowledge Keepers by NorQuest College Library, licensed under CC BY-NC-SA 4.0.

License

Icon for the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License

MLA Style Citation Tutorial by University of Alberta Library and NorQuest College Library is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License, except where otherwise noted.

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