Review Questions

1Need for ________ refers to maintaining positive relationships with others.

  1. achievement
  2. affiliation
  3. intimacy
  4. power
2________ proposed the hierarchy of needs.

  1. William James
  2. David McClelland
  3. Abraham Maslow
  4. Albert Bandura
3________ is an individual’s belief in her capability to complete some task.

  1. physiological needs
  2. self-esteem
  3. self-actualization
  4. self-efficacy
4Carl mows the yard of his elderly neighbor each week for $20. What type of motivation is this?

  1. extrinsic
  2. intrinsic
  3. drive
  4. biological
5According to your reading, nearly ________ of the adult population in the United States can be classified as obese.

  1. one half
  2. one third
  3. one fourth
  4. one fifth
6________ is a chemical messenger secreted by fat cells that acts as an appetite suppressant.

  1. orexin
  2. angiotensin
  3. leptin
  4. ghrelin
7________ is characterized by episodes of binge eating followed by attempts to compensate for the excessive amount of food that was consumed.

  1. Prader-Willi syndrome
  2. morbid obesity
  3. anorexia nervosa
  4. bulimia nervosa
8In order to be classified as morbidly obese, an adult must have a BMI of ________.

  1. less than 25
  2. 25–29.9
  3. 30–39.9
  4. 40 or more
9Animal research suggests that in male rats the ________ is critical for the ability to engage in sexual behavior, but not for the motivation to do so.

  1. nucleus accumbens
  2. amygdala
  3. medial preoptic area of the hypothalamus
  4. hippocampus
10During the ________ phase of the sexual response cycle, individuals experience rhythmic contractions of the pelvis that are accompanied by uterine contractions in women and ejaculation in men.

  1. excitement
  2. plateau
  3. orgasm
  4. resolution
11Which of the following findings was not a result of the Kinsey study?

  1. Sexual desire and sexual ability can be separate functions.
  2. Females enjoy sex as much as males.
  3. Homosexual behavior is fairly common.
  4. Masturbation has no adverse consequences.
12If someone is uncomfortable identifying with the gender normally associated with their biological sex, then he could be classified as experiencing ________.

  1. homosexuality
  2. bisexuality
  3. asexuality
  4. gender dysphoria
13Individuals suffering from posttraumatic stress disorder have been shown to have reduced volumes of the ________.

  1. amygdala
  2. hippocampus
  3. hypothalamus
  4. thalamus
14According to the ________ theory of emotion, emotional experiences arise from physiological arousal.

  1. James-Lange
  2. Cannon-Bard
  3. Schachter-Singer two-factor
  4. Darwinian
15Which of the following is not one of the seven universal emotions described in this chapter?

  1. contempt
  2. disgust
  3. melancholy
  4. anger
16Which of the following theories of emotion would suggest that polygraphs should be quite accurate at differentiating one emotion from another?

  1. Cannon-Bard theory
  2. James-Lange theory
  3. Schachter-Singer two-factor theory
  4. Darwinian theory

Critical Thinking Questions

17How might someone espousing an arousal theory of motivation explain visiting an amusement park?
18Schools often use concrete rewards to increase adaptive behaviors. How might this be a disadvantage for students intrinsically motivated to learn? What are educational implications of the potential for concrete rewards to diminish intrinsic motivation for a given task?
19The index that is often used to classify people as being underweight, normal weight, overweight, obese, or morbidly obese is called BMI. Given that BMI is calculated solely on weight and height, how could it be misleading?
20As indicated in this section, White women from industrialized, Western cultures tend to be at the highest risk for eating disorders like anorexia and bulimia nervosa. Why might this be?
21While much research has been conducted on how an individual develops a given sexual orientation, many people question the validity of this research citing that the participants used may not be representative. Why do you think this might be a legitimate concern?
22There is no reliable scientific evidence that gay conversion therapy actually works. What kinds of evidence would you need to see in order to be convinced by someone arguing that she had successfully converted her sexual orientation?
23Imagine you find a venomous snake crawling up your leg just after taking a drug that prevented sympathetic nervous system activation. What would the James-Lange theory predict about your experience?
24Why can we not make causal claims regarding the relationship between the volume of the hippocampus and PTSD?

Personal Review Questions

25Can you think of recent examples of how Maslow’s hierarchy of needs might have affected your behavior in some way?
26Think about popular television programs on the air right now. What do the women in these programs look like? What do the men look like? What kinds of messages do you think the media is sending about men and women in our society?
27Issues related to sexual orientation have been at the forefront of the current political landscape. What do you think about current debates on legalizing same-sex marriage?
28Think about times in your life when you have been absolutely elated (e.g., perhaps your school’s basketball team just won a closely contested ballgame for the national championship) and very fearful (e.g., you are about to give a speech in your public speaking class to a roomful of 100 strangers). How would you describe how your arousal manifested itself physically? Were there marked differences in physiological arousal associated with each emotional state?


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