Review Questions

1A(n) ________ is a sudden, permanent change in a sequence of DNA.

  1. allele
  2. chromosome
  3. epigenetic
  4. mutation

2________ refers to a person’s genetic makeup, while ________ refers to a person’s physical characteristics.

  1. Phenotype; genotype
  2. Genotype; phenotype
  3. DNA; gene
  4. Gene; DNA

3________ is the field of study that focuses on genes and their expression.

  1. Social psychology
  2. Evolutionary psychology
  3. Epigenetics
  4. Behavioral neuroscience

4Humans have ________ pairs of chromosomes.

  1. 15
  2. 23
  3. 46
  4. 78

5The ________ receive(s) incoming signals from other neurons.

  1. soma
  2. terminal buttons
  3. myelin sheath
  4. dendrites

6A(n) ________ facilitates or mimics the activity of a given neurotransmitter system.

  1. axon
  2. SSRI
  3. agonist
  4. antagonist

7Multiple sclerosis involves a breakdown of the ________.

  1. soma
  2. myelin sheath
  3. synaptic vesicles
  4. dendrites

8An action potential involves Na+ moving ________ the cell and K+ moving ________ the cell.

  1. inside; outside
  2. outside; inside
  3. inside; inside
  4. outside; outside

9Our ability to make our legs move as we walk across the room is controlled by the ________ nervous system.

  1. autonomic
  2. somatic
  3. sympathetic
  4. parasympathetic

10If your ________ is activated, you will feel relatively at ease.

  1. somatic nervous system
  2. sympathetic nervous system
  3. parasympathetic nervous system
  4. spinal cord

11The central nervous system is comprised of ________.

  1. sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems
  2. organs and glands
  3. somatic and autonomic nervous systems
  4. brain and spinal cord

12Sympathetic activation is associated with ________.

  1. pupil dilation
  2. storage of glucose in the liver
  3. increased heart rate
  4. both A and C

13The ________ is a sensory relay station where all sensory information, except for smell, goes before being sent to other areas of the brain for further processing.

  1. amygdala
  2. hippocampus
  3. hypothalamus
  4. thalamus

14Damage to the ________ disrupts one’s ability to comprehend language, but it leaves one’s ability to produce words intact.

  1. amygdala
  2. Broca’s Area
  3. Wernicke’s Area
  4. occipital lobe

15A(n) ________ uses magnetic fields to create pictures of a given tissue.

  1. EEG
  2. MRI
  3. PET scan
  4. CT scan

16Which of the following is not a structure of the forebrain?

  1. thalamus
  2. hippocampus
  3. amygdala
  4. substantia nigra

17The two major hormones secreted from the pancreas are:

  1. estrogen and progesterone
  2. norepinephrine and epinephrine
  3. thyroxine and oxytocin
  4. glucagon and insulin

18The ________ secretes messenger hormones that direct the function of the rest of the endocrine glands.

  1. ovary
  2. thyroid
  3. pituitary
  4. pancreas

19The ________ gland secretes epinephrine.

  1. adrenal
  2. thyroid
  3. pituitary
  4. master

20The ________ secretes hormones that regulate the body’s fluid levels.

  1. adrenal
  2. pituitary
  3. testes
  4. thyroid
21The theory of evolution by natural selection requires variability of a given trait. Why is variability necessary and where does it come from?
22Cocaine has two effects on synaptic transmission: it impairs reuptake of dopamine and it causes more dopamine to be released into the synaptic cleft. Would cocaine be classified as an agonist or antagonist? Why?
23Drugs such as lidocaine and novocaine act as Na+ channel blockers. In other words, they prevent sodium from moving across the neuronal membrane. Why would this particular effect make these drugs such effective local anesthetics?
24What are the implications of compromised immune function as a result of exposure to chronic stress?
25Examine Figure 3.14, illustrating the effects of sympathetic nervous system activation. How would all of these things play into the fight or flight response?
26Before the advent of modern imaging techniques, scientists and clinicians relied on autopsies of people who suffered brain injury with resultant change in behaviour to determine how different areas of the brain were affected. What are some of the limitations associated with this kind of approach?
27Which of the techniques discussed would be viable options for you to determine how activity in the reticular formation is related to sleep and wakefulness? Why?
28Hormone secretion is often regulated through a negative feedback mechanism, which means that once a hormone is secreted it will cause the hypothalamus and pituitary to shut down the production of signals necessary to secrete the hormone in the first place. Most oral contraceptives are made of small doses of estrogen and/or progesterone. Why would this be an effective means of contraception?
29Chemical messengers are used in both the nervous system and the endocrine system. What properties do these two systems share? What properties are different? Which one would be faster? Which one would result in long-lasting changes?

Personal Application Questions

30You share half of your genetic makeup with each of your parents, but you are no doubt very different from both of them. Spend a few minutes jotting down the similarities and differences between you and your parents. How do you think your unique environment and experiences have contributed to some of the differences you see?
31Have you or someone you know ever been prescribed a psychotropic medication? If so, what side effects were associated with the treatment?
32Hopefully, you do not face real physical threats from potential predators on a daily basis. However, you probably have your fair share of stress. What situations are your most common sources of stress? What can you do to try to minimize the negative consequences of these particular stressors in your life?
33You read about H. M.’s memory deficits following the bilateral removal of his hippocampus and amygdala. Have you encountered a character in a book, television program, or movie that suffered memory deficits? How was that character similar to and different from H. M.?
34Given the negative health consequences associated with the use of anabolic steroids, what kinds of considerations might be involved in a person’s decision to use them?


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Introduction to Psychology Copyright © 2021 by Southern Alberta Institution of Technology (SAIT) is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, except where otherwise noted.

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