Review Questions

1The body’s biological clock is located in the ________.

  1. hippocampus
  2. thalamus
  3. hypothalamus
  4. pituitary gland

2________ occurs when there is a chronic deficiency in sleep.

  1. jet lag
  2. rotating shift work
  3. circadian rhythm
  4. sleep debt

3________ cycles occur roughly once every 24 hours.

  1. biological
  2. circadian
  3. rotating
  4. conscious

4________ is one way in which people can help reset their biological clocks.

  1. Light-dark exposure
  2. coffee consumption
  3. alcohol consumption
  4. napping

5Growth hormone is secreted by the ________ while we sleep.

  1. pineal gland
  2. thyroid
  3. pituitary gland
  4. pancreas

6The ________ plays a role in controlling slow-wave sleep.

  1. hypothalamus
  2. thalamus
  3. pons
  4. both a and b

7________ is a hormone secreted by the pineal gland that plays a role in regulating biological rhythms and immune function.

  1. growth hormone
  2. melatonin
  3. LH
  4. FSH

8________ appears to be especially important for enhanced performance on recently learned tasks.

  1. melatonin
  2. slow-wave sleep
  3. sleep deprivation
  4. growth hormone

9________ is(are) described as slow-wave sleep.

  1. stage 1
  2. stage 2
  3. stage 3 and stage 4
  4. REM sleep

10Sleep spindles and K-complexes are most often associated with ________ sleep.

  1. stage 1
  2. stage 2
  3. stage 3 and stage 4
  4. REM

11Symptoms of ________ may be improved by REM deprivation.

  1. schizophrenia
  2. Parkinson’s disease
  3. depression
  4. generalized anxiety disorder

12The ________ content of a dream refers to the true meaning of the dream.

  1. latent
  2. manifest
  3. collective unconscious
  4. important

13________ is loss of muscle tone or control that is often associated with narcolepsy.

  1. RBD
  2. CPAP
  3. cataplexy
  4. insomnia


________ is another word for sleepwalking.

  1. insomnia
  2. somnambulism
  3. cataplexy
  4. narcolepsy

15________ is most effective in individuals that are very open to the power of suggestion.

  1. hypnosis
  2. meditation
  3. mindful awareness
  4. cognitive therapy

16Meditation may be helpful in ________.

  1. pain management
  2. stress control
  3. treating the flu
  4. both a and b

17. Research suggests that cognitive processes, such as learning, may be affected by ________.

  1. hypnosis
  2. meditation
  3. mindful awareness
  4. progressive relaxation
25Healthcare professionals often work rotating shifts. Why is this problematic? What can be done to deal with potential problems?
26Generally, humans are considered diurnal which means we are awake during the day and asleep during the night. Many rodents, on the other hand, are nocturnal. Why do you think different animals have such different sleep-wake cycles?
27If theories that assert sleep is necessary for restoration and recovery from daily energetic demands are correct, what do you predict about the relationship that would exist between individuals’ total sleep duration and their level of activity?
28How could researchers determine if given areas of the brain are involved in the regulation of sleep?
29Differentiate the evolutionary theories of sleep and make a case for the one with the most compelling evidence.
30Freud believed that dreams provide important insight into the unconscious mind. He maintained that a dream’s manifest content could provide clues into an individual’s unconscious. What potential criticisms exist for this particular perspective?
31Some people claim that sleepwalking and talking in your sleep involve individuals acting out their dreams. Why is this particular explanation unlikely?
32One of the recommendations that therapists will make to people who suffer from insomnia is to spend less waking time in bed. Why do you think spending waking time in bed might interfere with the ability to fall asleep later?
33How is narcolepsy with cataplexy similar to and different from REM sleep?
34.  What advantages exist for researching the potential health benefits of hypnosis?
35. What types of studies would be most convincing regarding the effectiveness of meditation in the treatment for some type of physical or mental disorder?

Personal Application Questions

36We experience shifts in our circadian clocks in the fall and spring of each year with time changes associated with daylight saving time. Is springing ahead or falling back easier for you to adjust to, and why do you think that is?
39What do you do to adjust to the differences in your daily schedule throughout the week? Are you running a sleep debt when daylight saving time begins or ends?
40Have you (or someone you know) ever experienced significant periods of sleep deprivation because of simple insomnia, high levels of stress, or as a side effect from a medication? What were the consequences of missing out on sleep?
41Researchers believe that one important function of sleep is to facilitate learning and memory. How does knowing this help you in your college studies? What changes could you make to your study and sleep habits to maximize your mastery of the material covered in class?
42What factors might contribute to your own experiences with insomnia?
43Many people experiment with some sort of psychoactive substance at some point in their lives. Why do you think people are motivated to use substances that alter consciousness?
44Under what circumstances would you be willing to consider hypnosis and/or meditation as a treatment option? What kind of information would you need before you made a decision to use these techniques?


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Introduction to Psychology Copyright © 2021 by Southern Alberta Institution of Technology (SAIT) is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, except where otherwise noted.

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