Review Questions

1________ is a memory store with a phonological loop, visiospatial sketchpad, episodic buffer, and a central executive.

  1. sensory memory
  2. episodic memory
  3. working memory
  4. implicit memory

2The storage capacity of long-term memory is ________.

  1. one or two bits of information
  2. seven bits, plus or minus two
  3. limited
  4. essentially limitless

3The three functions of memory are ________.

  1. automatic processing, effortful processing, and storage
  2. encoding, processing, and storage
  3. automatic processing, effortful processing, and retrieval
  4. encoding, storage, and retrieval

4This physical trace of memory is known as the ________.

  1. engram
  2. Lashley effect
  3. Deese-Roediger-McDermott Paradigm
  4. flashbulb memory effect

5An exceptionally clear recollection of an important event is a (an) ________.

  1. engram
  2. arousal theory
  3. flashbulb memory
  4. equipotentiality hypothesis

6________ is when our recollections of the past are done in a self-enhancing manner.

  1. stereotypical bias
  2. egocentric bias
  3. hindsight bias
  4. enhancement bias

7Tip-of-the-tongue phenomenon is also known as ________.

  1. persistence
  2. misattribution
  3. transience
  4. blocking

8The formulation of new memories is sometimes called ________, and the process of bringing up old memories is called ________.

  1. construction; reconstruction
  2. reconstruction; construction
  3. production; reproduction
  4. reproduction; production

9When you are learning how to play the piano, the statement “Every good boy does fine” can help you remember the notes E, G, B, D, and F for the lines of the treble clef. This is an example of a (an) ________.

  1. jingle
  2. acronym
  3. acrostic
  4. acoustic

10According to a study by Yogo and Fujihara (2008), if you want to improve your short-term memory, you should spend time writing about ________.

  1. your best possible future self
  2. a traumatic life experience
  3. a trivial topic
  4. your grocery list

11The self-referencing effect refers to ________.

  1. making the material you are trying to memorize personally meaningful to you
  2. making a phrase of all the first letters of the words you are trying to memorize
  3. making a word formed by the first letter of each of the words you are trying to memorize
  4. saying words you want to remember out loud to yourself

12Memory aids that help organize information for encoding are ________.

  1. mnemonic devices
  2. memory-enhancing strategies
  3. elaborative rehearsal
  4. effortful processing

Critical Thinking Questions

13Compare and contrast implicit and explicit memory.
14According to the Atkinson-Shiffrin model, name and describe the three stages of memory.
15Compare and contrast the two ways in which we encode information.
16What might happen to your memory system if you sustained damage to your hippocampus?
17Compare and contrast the two types of interference.
18Compare and contrast the two types of amnesia.
19What is the self-reference effect, and how can it help you study more effectively?
20You and your roommate spent all of last night studying for your psychology test. You think you know the material; however, you suggest that you study again the next morning an hour prior to the test. Your roommate asks you to explain why you think this is a good idea. What do you tell her?

Personal Application Questions

21Describe something you have learned that is now in your procedural memory. Discuss how you learned this information.
22Describe something you learned in high school that is now in your semantic memory.
23Describe a flashbulb memory of a significant event in your life.
24Which of the seven memory errors presented by Schacter have you committed? Provide an example of each one.
25Jurors place a lot of weight on eyewitness testimony. Imagine you are an attorney representing a defendant who is accused of robbing a convenience store. Several eyewitnesses have been called to testify against your client. What would you tell the jurors about the reliability of eyewitness testimony?
26Create a mnemonic device to help you remember a term or concept from this chapter.
27What is an effective study technique that you have used? How is it similar to/different from the strategies suggested in this chapter?


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Introduction to Psychology Copyright © 2021 by Southern Alberta Institution of Technology (SAIT) is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, except where otherwise noted.

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