This guide is based on the style used in the journal Ecology, from the Ecological Society of America.
In text citations include the surname(s) of the author(s) and the year of publication. Follow these guidelines to format your in text citations correctly.
1. How names are displayed depends on the number of authors:
|One author:||(Hanlon 2007)|
|Two authors:||(Rosa and Seibel 2010)|
|Three or more authors:||(IJsseldijk et al. 2015)|
2. To cite multiple works at once, list the works in chronological order, from earliest to most recent.
(Hanlon 2007; Arnaud 2015; Torras 2016)
3. If you are quoting a paper, the page numbers are not required
Reference list citations
Reference list citations change depending on the type of item you are citing. Examples are below.
Notes for all citations:
- Citations have a hanging indent, that means every line after the first line is indented to the right.
- Only the first word of titles or proper nouns should be capitalized.
Author, A. A., B. B. Author, and C. C. Author. Year. Article Title. Journal title. Volume: pages.
Note: DOI address (https://doi.org/xx.xxx/yyyy) should be added for online-only journals.
Author, A. A., B. B. Author, and C. C. Author. Year. Book title. Publisher, City of publication, State of publication, Country of publication.
Chapter in an edited book
Author, A. A., B. B. Author, and C. C. Author. Year. Title of chapter. Pages in A. A. Editor, B. B. Editor, and C. C. Editor, editors. Book title. Publisher, City of publication, State of publication, Country of publication.
For more help with Ecology style, see recent issue of the journal Ecology or check out the Ecology Citation Guide: https://guides.library.ualberta.ca/citing/ecology